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Freedom, fairness and equality

Seth Godin - Thu 18th Jan 2018 20:01
Freedom doesn't mean no responsibility. In fact, it requires extra responsibility. Freedom is the ability to make a choice, and responsibility is required once you make that choice. Fairness isn't a handout. Fairness is the willingness to offer dignity to...        Seth Godin
Categories: thinktime

Perfect vs. important

Seth Godin - Wed 17th Jan 2018 20:01
Is there a conflict? Does holding something back as you polish it make it more likely that you'll create something important? I don't think so. There's no apparent correlation. Instead, what we see is that, all things being equal, polished...        Seth Godin
Categories: thinktime

Please don't kill the blogs

Seth Godin - Wed 17th Jan 2018 03:01
An open note to Google To the gmail team, You've built a tool for a billion people. Most of my blog readers use it every day, and so do I. Thanks for creating an effective way for people to connect...        Seth Godin
Categories: thinktime

The four elements of entrepreneurship

Seth Godin - Tue 16th Jan 2018 20:01
Are successful entrepreneurs made or born? We’d need to start with an understanding of what an entrepreneur is. They’re all over the map, which makes the question particularly difficult to navigate. There’s the 14-year-old girl who hitches a ride to...        Seth Godin
Categories: thinktime

Russell Coker: More About the Thinkpad X301

Planet Linux Australia - Tue 16th Jan 2018 15:01

Last month I blogged about the Thinkpad X301 I got from a rubbish pile [1]. One thing I didn’t realise when writing that post is that the X301 doesn’t have the keyboard light that the T420 has. With the T420 I could press the bottom left (FN) and top right (PgUp from memory) keys on the keyboard to turn a light on the keyboard. This is really good for typing at night. While I can touch type the small keyboard on a laptop makes it a little difficult so the light is a feature I found useful. I wrote my review of the X301 before having to use it at night.

Another problem I noticed is that it crashes after running Memtest86+ for between 30 minutes and 4 hours. Memtest86+ doesn’t report any memory errors, the system just entirely locks up. I have 2 DIMMs for it (2G and 4G), I tried installing them in both orders, and I tried with each of them in the first slot (the system won’t boot if only the second slot is filled). Nothing changed. Now it is possible that this is something that might not happen in real use. For example it might only happen due to heat when the system is under sustained load which isn’t something I planned for that laptop. I would discard a desktop system that had such a problem because I get lots of free desktop PCs, but I’m prepared to live with a laptop that has such a problem to avoid paying for another laptop.

Last night the laptop battery suddenly stopped working entirely. I had it unplugged for about 5 minutes when it abruptly went off (no flashing light to warn that the battery was low or anything). Now when I plug it in the battery light flashes orange. A quick Google search indicates that this might mean that a fuse inside the battery pack has blown or that there might be a problem with the system board. Replacing the system board is much more than the laptop is worth and even replacing the battery will probably cost more than it’s worth. Previously bought a Thinkpad T420 at auction because it didn’t cost much more than getting a new battery and PSU for a T61 [2] and I expect I can find a similar deal if I poll the auction sites for a while.

Using an X series Thinkpad has been a good experience and I’ll definitely consider an X series for my next laptop. My previous history of laptops involved going from ones with a small screen that were heavy and clunky (what was available with 90’s technology and cost less than a car) to ones that had a large screen and were less clunky but still heavy. I hadn’t tried small and light with technology from the last decade, it’s something I could really get used to!

By today’s standards the X301 is deficient in a number of ways. It has 64G of storage (the same as my most recent phones) which isn’t much for software development, 6G of RAM which isn’t too bad but is small by today’s standards (16G is a common factory option nowadays), a 1440*900 screen which looks bad in any comparison (less than the last 3 phones I’ve owned), and a slow CPU. No two of these limits would be enough to make me consider replacing that laptop. Even with the possibility of crashing under load it was still a useful system. But the lack of a usable battery in combination with all the other issues makes the entire system unsuitable for my needs. I would be very happy to use a fast laptop with a high resolution screen even without a battery, but not with this list of issues.

Next week I’m going to a conference and there’s no possibility of buying a new laptop before then. So for a week when I need to use a laptop a lot I will have a sub-standard laptop.

It really sucks to have a laptop develop a problem that makes me want to replace it so soon after I got it.

Related posts:

  1. I Just Bought a new Thinkpad and the Lenovo Web Site Sucks I’ve just bought a Thinkpad T61 at auction for $AU796....
  2. Thinkpad X301 Another Broken Thinkpad A few months ago I wrote a...
  3. thinkpad back from repair On Tuesday my Thinkpad was taken for service to fix...
Categories: thinktime

Justice and dignity, the endless shortage

Seth Godin - Mon 15th Jan 2018 20:01
You will never regret offering dignity to others. We rarely get into trouble because we overdo our sense of justice and fairness. Not just us, but where we work, the others we influence. Organizations and governments are nothing but people,...        Seth Godin
Categories: thinktime

Fake wasabi

Seth Godin - Sun 14th Jan 2018 19:01
Most sushi restaurants serve a green substance with every roll. But it's not wasabi, it's a mix of horseradish and some other flavorings. Real wasabi costs too much. The thing is, if you grew up with this, you're used to...        Seth Godin
Categories: thinktime

Before you design a chart or infographic

Seth Godin - Sat 13th Jan 2018 20:01
What's it for? A graph only exists to make a point. Its purpose is not to present all the information. Its purpose is not to be pretty. Most of all, its purpose is not, "well, they told me I needed...        Seth Godin
Categories: thinktime

The witnesses and the participants

Seth Godin - Fri 12th Jan 2018 20:01
Every history student knows about the tragedy of the commons. When farmers shared grazing land, no one had an incentive to avoid overgrazing, and without individual incentives, the commons degraded until it was useless. We talk about this as if...        Seth Godin
Categories: thinktime

No More FAQs: Create Purposeful Information for a More Effective User Experience

a list apart - Fri 12th Jan 2018 02:01

It’s normal for your website users to have recurring questions and need quick access to specific information to complete … whatever it is they came looking for. Many companies still opt for the ubiquitous FAQ (frequently asked/anticipated questions) format to address some or even all information needs. But FAQs often miss the mark because people don’t realize that creating effective user information—even when using the apparently simple question/answer format—is complex and requires careful planning.

As a technical writer and now information architect, I’ve worked to upend this mediocre approach to web content for more than a decade, and here’s what I’ve learned: instead of defaulting to an unstructured FAQ, invest in information that’s built around a comprehensive content strategy specifically designed to meet user and company goals. We call it purposeful information.

The problem with FAQs

Because of the internet’s Usenet heritage—discussion boards where regular contributors would produce FAQs so they didn’t have to repeat information for newbies—a lot of early websites started out by providing all information via FAQs. Well, the ‘80s called, and they want their style back!

Unfortunately, content in this simple format can often be attractive to organizations, as it’s “easy” to produce without the need to engage professional writers or comprehensively work on information architecture (IA) and content strategy. So, like zombies in a horror film, and with the same level of intellectual rigor, FAQs continue to pop up all over the web. The trouble is, this approach to documentation-by-FAQ has problems, and the information is about as far from being purposeful as it’s possible to get.

For example, when companies and organizations resort to documentation-by-FAQ, it’s often the only place certain information exists, yet users are unlikely to spend the time required to figure that out. Conversely, if information is duplicated, it’s easy for website content to get out of sync. The FAQ page can also be a dumping ground for any information a company needs to put on the website, regardless of the topic. Worse, the page’s format and structure can increase confusion and cognitive load, while including obviously invented questions and overt marketing language can result in losing users’ trust quickly. Looking at each issue in more detail:

  • Duplicate and contradictory information: Even on small websites, it can be hard to maintain information. On large sites with multiple authors and an unclear content strategy, information can get out of sync quickly, resulting in duplicate or even contradictory content. I once purchased food online from a company after reading in their FAQ—the content that came up most often when searching for allergy information—that the product didn’t contain nuts. However, on receiving the product and reading the label, I realized the FAQ information was incorrect, and I was able to obtain a refund. An information architecture (IA) strategy that includes clear pathways to key content not only better supports user information needs that drive purchases, but also reduces company risk. If you do have to put information in multiple locations, consider using an object-oriented content management system (CMS) so content is reused, not duplicated. (Our company open-sourced one called Fae.)
  • Lack of discernible content order: Humans want information to be ordered in ways they can understand, whether it’s alphabetical, time-based, or by order of operation, importance, or even frequency. The question format can disguise this organization by hiding the ordering mechanism. For example, I could publish a page that outlines a schedule of household maintenance tasks by frequency, with natural categories (in order) of daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, and annually. But putting that information into an FAQ format, such as “How often should I dust my ceiling fan?,” breaks that logical organization of content—it’s potentially a stand-alone question. Even on a site that’s dedicated only to household maintenance, that information will be more accessible if placed within the larger context of maintenance frequency.
  • Repetitive grammatical structure: Users like to scan for information, so having repetitive phrases like “How do I …” that don’t relate to the specific task make it much more difficult for readers to quickly find the relevant content. In a lengthy help page with catch-all categories, like the Patagonia FAQ page, users have to swim past a sea of “How do I …,” “Why can’t I …,” and “What do I …” phrases to get to the actual information. While categories can help narrow the possibilities, the user still has to take the time to find the most likely category and then the relevant question within it. The Patagonia website also shows how an FAQ section can become a catch-all. Oh, how I’d love the opportunity to restructure all that Patagonia information into purposeful information designed to address user needs at the exact right moment. So much potential!
  • Increased cognitive load: As well as being repetitive, the question format can also be surprisingly specific, forcing users to mentally break apart the wording of the questions to find a match for their need. If a question appears to exclude the required information, the user may never click to see the answer, even if it is actually relevant. Answers can also raise additional, unnecessary questions in the minds of users. Consider the FAQ-formatted “Can I pay my bill with Venmo?” (which limits the answer to one payment type that only some users may recognize). Rewriting the question to “How can I pay my bill online?” and updating the content improves the odds that users will read the answer and be able to complete their task. However, an even better approach is to create purposeful content under the more direct and concise heading “Online payment options,” which is broad enough to cover all payment services (as a topic in the “Bill Payments” portion of a website), as well as instructions and other task-orientated information.
  • Longer content requirements: In most cases, questions have a longer line length than topic headings. The Airbnb help page illustrates when design and content strategy clash. The design truncates the question after 40 characters when the browser viewport is wider than 743 pixels. You have to click the question to find out if it holds the answer you need—far from ideal! Yet the heading “I’m a guest. How do I check the status of my reservation?” could easily have been rewritten as “Checking reservation status” or even “Guests: Checking reservation status.” Not only do these alternatives fit within the line length limitations set by the design, but the lower word count and simplified English also reduce translation costs (another issue some companies have to consider).
Purposeful information

Grounded in the Minimalist approach to technical documentation, the idea behind purposeful information is that users come to any type of content with a particular purpose in mind, ranging from highly specific (task completion) to general learning (increased knowledge). Different websites—and even different areas within a single website—may be aimed at different users and different purposes. Organizations also have goals when they construct websites, whether they’re around brand awareness, encouraging specific user behavior, or meeting legal requirements. Companies that meld user and organization goals in a way that feels authentic can be very successful in building brand loyalty.

Commerce sites, for example, have the goal of driving purchases, so the information on the site needs to provide content that enables effortless purchasing decisions. For other sites, the goal might be to drive user visits, encourage newsletter sign-ups, or increase brand awareness. In any scenario, burying in FAQs any pathways needed by users to complete their goals is a guaranteed way to make it less likely that the organization will meet theirs.

By digging into what users need to accomplish (not a general “they need to complete the form,” but the underlying, real-world task, such as getting a shipping quote, paying a bill, accessing health care, or enrolling in college), you can design content to provide the right information at the right time and better help users accomplish those goals. As well as making it less likely you’ll need an FAQ section at all, using this approach to generate a credible IA and content strategy—the tools needed to determine a meaningful home for all your critical content—will build authority and user trust.

Defining specific goals when planning a website is therefore essential if content is to be purposeful throughout the site. Common user-centered methodologies employed during both IA and content planning include user-task analysis, content audits, personas, user observations, and analysis of call center data and web analytics. A complex project might use multiple methodologies to define the content strategy and supporting IA to provide users with the necessary information.

The redesign of the Oliver Winery website is a good example of creating purposeful information instead of resorting to an FAQ. There was a user goal of being able to find practical information about visiting the winery (such as details regarding food, private parties, etc.), yet this information was scattered across various pages, including a partially complete FAQ. There was a company goal of reducing the volume of calls to customer support. In the redesign, a single page called “Plan Your Visit” was created with all the relevant topics. It is accessible from the “Visit” section and via the main navigation.

The system used is designed to be flexible. Topics are added, removed, and reordered using the CMS, and published on the “Plan Your Visit” page, which also shows basic logistical information like hours and contact details, in a non-FAQ format. Conveniently, contact details are maintained in only one location within the CMS yet published on various pages throughout the site. As a result, all information is readily available to users, increasing the likelihood that they’ll make the decision to visit the winery.

If you have to include FAQs

This happens. Even though there are almost always more effective ways to meet user needs than writing an FAQ, FAQs happen. Sometimes the client insists, and sometimes even the most ardent opponent (ahem) concludes that in a very particular circumstance, an FAQ can be purposeful. The most effective FAQ is one with a specific, timely, or transactional need, or one with information that users need repeated access to, such as when paying bills or organizing product returns.

Good topics for an FAQ include transactional activities, such as those involved in the buying process: think shipments, payments, refunds, and returns. By being specific and focusing on a particular task, you avoid the categorization problem described earlier. By limiting questions to those that are frequently asked AND that have a very narrow focus (to reduce users having to sort through lots of content), you create more effective FAQs.

Amazon’s support center has a great example of an effective FAQ within their overall support content because they have exactly one: “Where’s My Stuff?.” Set under the “Browse Help Topics” heading, the question leads to a list of task-based topics that help users track down the location of their missing packages. Note that all of the other support content is purposeful, set in a topic-based help system that’s nicely categorized, with a search bar that allows users to dive straight in.

Conference websites, which by their nature are already focused on a specific company goal (conference sign-ups), often have an FAQ section that covers basic conference information, logistics, or the value of attending. This can be effective. However, for the reasons outlined earlier, the content can quickly become overwhelming if conference organizers try to include all information about the conference as a single list of questions, as demonstrated by Web Summit’s FAQ page. Overdoing it can cause confusion even when the design incorporates categories and an otherwise useful UX that includes links, buttons, or tabs, such as on the FAQ page of The Next Web Conference.

In examining these examples, it’s apparent how much more easily users could access the information if it wasn’t presented as questions. But if you do have to use FAQs, here are my tips for creating the best possible user experience.

Creating a purposeful FAQ:

  • Make it easy to find.
  • Have a clear purpose and highly specific content in mind.
  • Give it a clear title related to the user tasks (e.g., “Shipping FAQ” rather than just “FAQ”).
  • Use clear, concise wording for questions.
  • Focus questions on user goals and tasks, not on product or brand.
  • Keep it short.

What to avoid in any FAQ:

  • Don’t include “What does FAQ stand for?” (unfortunately, not a fictional example). Instead, simply define acronyms and initialisms on first use.
  • Don’t define terms using an FAQ format—it’s a ticket straight to documentation hell. If you have to define terms, what you need is a glossary, not FAQs.
  • Don’t tell your brand story or company history, or pontificate. People don’t want to know as much about your brand, product, and services as you are eager to tell them. Sorry.
In the end, always remember your users

Your website should be filled with purposeful content that meets users’ core needs and fulfills your company’s objectives. Do your users and your bottom line a favor and invest in effective user analysis, IA, content strategy, and documentation. Your users will be able to find the information they need, and your brand will be that much more awesome as a result.

Categories: thinktime

First, de-escalate

Seth Godin - Thu 11th Jan 2018 20:01
It's very difficult to reason with someone if their hair is on fire. Customer service (whether you're a school principal, a call center or a consultant) can't begin until the person you're working with believes that you're going to help...        Seth Godin
Categories: thinktime

Charisma, cause and effect

Seth Godin - Wed 10th Jan 2018 20:01
Charisma doesn't permit us to lead. Leading gives us charisma.        Seth Godin
Categories: thinktime

Jonathan Adamczewski: Priorities for my team

Planet Linux Australia - Wed 10th Jan 2018 17:01

(unthreaded from here)

During the day, I’m a Lead of a group of programmers. We’re responsible for a range of tools and tech used by others at the company for making games.

I have a list of the my priorities (and some related questions) of things that I think are important for us to be able to do well as individuals, and as a team:

  1. Treat people with respect. Value their time, place high value on their well-being, and start with the assumption that they have good intentions
    (“People” includes yourself: respect yourself, value your own time and well-being, and have confidence in your good intentions.)
  2. When solving a problem, know the user and understand their needs.
    • Do you understand the problem(s) that need to be solved? (it’s easy to make assumptions)
    • Have you spoken to the user and listened to their perspective? (it’s easy to solve the wrong problem)
    • Have you explored the specific constraints of the problem by asking questions like:
      • Is this part needed? (it’s easy to over-reach)
      • Is there a satisfactory simpler alternative? (actively pursue simplicity)
      • What else will be needed? (it’s easy to overlook details)
    • Have your discussed your proposed solution with users, and do they understand what you intend to do? (verify, and pursue buy-in)
    • Do you continue to meet regularly with users? Do they know you? Do they believe that you’re working for their benefit? (don’t under-estimate the value of trust)
  3. Have a clear understanding of what you are doing.
    • Do you understand the system you’re working in? (it’s easy to make assumptions)
    • Have you read the documentation and/or code? (set yourself up to succeed with whatever is available)
    • For code:
      • Have you tried to modify the code? (pull a thread; see what breaks)
      • Can you explain how the code works to another programmer in a convincing way? (test your confidence)
      • Can you explain how the code works to a non-programmer?
  4. When trying to solve a problem, debug aggressively and efficiently.
    • Does the bug need to be fixed? (see 1)
    • Do you understand how the system works? (see 2)
    • Is there a faster way to debug the problem? Can you change code or data to cause the problem to occur more quickly and reliably? (iterate as quickly as you can, fix the bug, and move on)
    • Do you trust your own judgement? (debug boldly, have confidence in what you have observed, make hypotheses and test them)
  5. Pursue excellence in your work.
    • How are you working to be better understood? (good communication takes time and effort)
    • How are you working to better understand others? (don’t assume that others will pursue you with insights)
    • Are you responding to feedback with enthusiasm to improve your work? (pursue professionalism)
    • Are you writing high quality, easy to understand, easy to maintain code? How do you know? (continue to develop your technical skills)
    • How are you working to become an expert and industry leader with the technologies and techniques you use every day? (pursue excellence in your field)
    • Are you eager to improve (and fix) systems you have worked on previously? (take responsibility for your work)

The list was created for discussion with the group, and as an effort to articulate my own expectations in a way that will help my team understand me.

Composing this has been useful exercise for me as a lead, and definitely worthwhile for the group. If you’ve never tried writing down your own priorities, values, and/or assumptions, I encourage you to try it :)

Categories: thinktime

Why Mutation Can Be Scary

a list apart - Wed 10th Jan 2018 02:01

A note from the editors: This article contain sample lessons from Learn JavaScript, a course that helps you learn JavaScript to build real-world components from scratch.

To mutate means to change in form or nature. Something that’s mutable can be changed, while something that’s immutable cannot be changed. To understand mutation, think of the X-Men. In X-Men, people can suddenly gain powers. The problem is, you don’t know when these powers will emerge. Imagine your friend turns blue and grows fur all of a sudden; that’d be scary, wouldn’t it?

h2 code, h3 code { text-transform: none; }

In JavaScript, the same problem with mutation applies. If your code is mutable, you might change (and break) something without knowing.

Objects are mutable in JavaScript

In JavaScript, you can add properties to an object. When you do so after instantiating it, the object is changed permanently. It mutates, like how an X-Men member mutates when they gain powers.

In the example below, the variable egg mutates once you add the isBroken property to it. We say that objects (like egg) are mutable (have the ability to mutate).

const egg = { name: "Humpty Dumpty" }; egg.isBroken = false; console.log(egg); // { // name: "Humpty Dumpty", // isBroken: false // }

Mutation is pretty normal in JavaScript. You use it all the time.

Here’s when mutation becomes scary.

Let’s say you create a constant variable called newEgg and assign egg to it. Then you want to change the name of newEgg to something else.

const egg = { name: "Humpty Dumpty" }; const newEgg = egg; = "Errr ... Not Humpty Dumpty";

When you change (mutate) newEgg, did you know egg gets mutated automatically?

console.log(egg); // { // name: "Errr ... Not Humpty Dumpty" // }

The example above illustrates why mutation can be scary—when you change one piece of your code, another piece can change somewhere else without your knowing. As a result, you’ll get bugs that are hard to track and fix.

This weird behavior happens because objects are passed by reference in JavaScript.

Objects are passed by reference in JavaScript

To understand what “passed by reference” means, first you have to understand that each object has a unique identity in JavaScript. When you assign an object to a variable, you link the variable to the identity of the object (that is, you pass it by reference) rather than assigning the variable the object’s value directly. This is why when you compare two different objects, you get false even if the objects have the same value.

console.log({} === {}); // false

When you assign egg to newEgg, newEgg points to the same object as egg. Since egg and newEgg are the same thing, when you change newEgg, egg gets changed automatically.

console.log(egg === newEgg); // true

Unfortunately, you don’t want egg to change along with newEgg most of the time, since it causes your code to break when you least expect it. So how do you prevent objects from mutating? Before you understand how to prevent objects from mutating, you need to know what’s immutable in JavaScript.

Primitives are immutable in JavaScript

In JavaScript, primitives (String, Number, Boolean, Null, Undefined, and Symbol) are immutable; you cannot change the structure (add properties or methods) of a primitive. Nothing will happen even if you try to add properties to a primitive.

const egg = "Humpty Dumpty"; egg.isBroken = false; console.log(egg); // Humpty Dumpty console.log(egg.isBroken); // undefined const doesn’t grant immutability

Many people think that variables declared with const are immutable. That’s an incorrect assumption.

Declaring a variable with const doesn’t make it immutable, it prevents you from assigning another value to it.

const myName = "Zell"; myName = "Triceratops"; // ERROR

When you declare an object with const, you’re still allowed to mutate the object. In the egg example above, even though egg is created with const, const doesn’t prevent egg from mutating.

const egg = { name: "Humpty Dumpty" }; egg.isBroken = false; console.log(egg); // { // name: "Humpty Dumpty", // isBroken: false // } Preventing objects from mutating

You can use Object.assign and assignment to prevent objects from mutating.


Object.assign lets you combine two (or more) objects together into a single one. It has the following syntax:

const newObject = Object.assign(object1, object2, object3, object4);

newObject will contain properties from all of the objects you’ve passed into Object.assign.

const papayaBlender = { canBlendPapaya: true }; const mangoBlender = { canBlendMango: true }; const fruitBlender = Object.assign(papayaBlender, mangoBlender); console.log(fruitBlender); // { // canBlendPapaya: true, // canBlendMango: true // }

If two conflicting properties are found, the property in a later object overwrites the property in an earlier object (in the Object.assign parameters).

const smallCupWithEar = { volume: 300, hasEar: true }; const largeCup = { volume: 500 }; // In this case, volume gets overwritten from 300 to 500 const myIdealCup = Object.assign(smallCupWithEar, largeCup); console.log(myIdealCup); // { // volume: 500, // hasEar: true // }

But beware! When you combine two objects with Object.assign, the first object gets mutated. Other objects don’t get mutated.

console.log(smallCupWithEar); // { // volume: 500, // hasEar: true // } console.log(largeCup); // { // volume: 500 // } Solving the Object.assign mutation problem

You can pass a new object as your first object to prevent existing objects from mutating. You’ll still mutate the first object though (the empty object), but that’s OK since this mutation doesn’t affect anything else.

const smallCupWithEar = { volume: 300, hasEar: true }; const largeCup = { volume: 500 }; // Using a new object as the first argument const myIdealCup = Object.assign({}, smallCupWithEar, largeCup);

You can mutate your new object however you want from this point. It doesn’t affect any of your previous objects.

myIdealCup.picture = "Mickey Mouse"; console.log(myIdealCup); // { // volume: 500, // hasEar: true, // picture: "Mickey Mouse" // } // smallCupWithEar doesn't get mutated console.log(smallCupWithEar); // { volume: 300, hasEar: true } // largeCup doesn't get mutated console.log(largeCup); // { volume: 500 } But Object.assign copies references to objects

The problem with Object.assign is that it performs a shallow merge—it copies properties directly from one object to another. When it does so, it also copies references to any objects.

Let’s explain this statement with an example.

Suppose you buy a new sound system. The system allows you to declare whether the power is turned on. It also lets you set the volume, the amount of bass, and other options.

const defaultSettings = { power: true, soundSettings: { volume: 50, bass: 20, // other options } };

Some of your friends love loud music, so you decide to create a preset that’s guaranteed to wake your neighbors when they’re asleep.

const loudPreset = { soundSettings: { volume: 100 } };

Then you invite your friends over for a party. To preserve your existing presets, you attempt to combine your loud preset with the default one.

const partyPreset = Object.assign({}, defaultSettings, loudPreset);

But partyPreset sounds weird. The volume is loud enough, but the bass is non-existent. When you inspect partyPreset, you’re surprised to find that there’s no bass in it!

console.log(partyPreset); // { // power: true, // soundSettings: { // volume: 100 // } // }

This happens because JavaScript copies over the reference to the soundSettings object. Since both defaultSettings and loudPreset have a soundSettings object, the one that comes later gets copied into the new object.

If you change partyPreset, loudPreset will mutate accordingly—evidence that the reference to soundSettings gets copied over.

partyPreset.soundSettings.bass = 50; console.log(loudPreset); // { // soundSettings: { // volume: 100, // bass: 50 // } // }

Since Object.assign performs a shallow merge, you need to use another method to merge objects that contain nested properties (that is, objects within objects).

Enter assignment.


assignment is a small library made by Nicolás Bevacqua from Pony Foo, which is a great source for JavaScript knowledge. It helps you perform a deep merge without having to worry about mutation. Aside from the method name, the syntax is the same as Object.assign.

// Perform a deep merge with assignment const partyPreset = assignment({}, defaultSettings, loudPreset); console.log(partyPreset); // { // power: true, // soundSettings: { // volume: 100, // bass: 20 // } // }

assignment copies over values of all nested objects, which prevents your existing objects from getting mutated.

If you try to change any property in partyPreset.soundSettings now, you’ll see that loudPreset remains as it was.

partyPreset.soundSettings.bass = 50; // loudPreset doesn't get mutated console.log(loudPreset); // { // soundSettings { // volume: 100 // } // }

assignment is just one of many libraries that help you perform a deep merge. Other libraries, including lodash.assign and merge-options, can help you do it, too. Feel free to choose from any of these libraries.

Should you always use assignment over Object.assign?

As long as you know how to prevent your objects from mutating, you can use Object.assign. There’s no harm in using it as long as you know how to use it properly.

However, if you need to assign objects with nested properties, always prefer a deep merge over Object.assign.

Ensuring objects don’t mutate

Although the methods I mentioned can help you prevent objects from mutating, they don’t guarantee that objects don’t mutate. If you made a mistake and used Object.assign for a nested object, you’ll be in for deep trouble later on.

To safeguard yourself, you might want to guarantee that objects don’t mutate at all. To do so, you can use libraries like ImmutableJS. This library throws an error whenever you attempt to mutate an object.

Alternatively, you can use Object.freeze and deep-freeze. These two methods fail silently (they don’t throw errors, but they also don’t mutate the objects).

Object.freeze and deep-freeze

Object.freeze prevents direct properties of an object from changing.

const egg = { name: "Humpty Dumpty", isBroken: false }; // Freezes the egg Object.freeze(egg); // Attempting to change properties will silently fail egg.isBroken = true; console.log(egg); // { name: "Humpty Dumpty", isBroken: false }

But it doesn’t help when you mutate a deeper property like defaultSettings.soundSettings.base.

const defaultSettings = { power: true, soundSettings: { volume: 50, bass: 20 } }; Object.freeze(defaultSettings); defaultSettings.soundSettings.bass = 100; // soundSettings gets mutated nevertheless console.log(defaultSettings); // { // power: true, // soundSettings: { // volume: 50, // bass: 100 // } // }

To prevent a deep mutation, you can use a library called deep-freeze, which recursively calls Object.freeze on all objects.

const defaultSettings = { power: true, soundSettings: { volume: 50, bass: 20 } }; // Performing a deep freeze (after including deep-freeze in your code per instructions on npm) deepFreeze(defaultSettings); // Attempting to change deep properties will fail silently defaultSettings.soundSettings.bass = 100; // soundSettings doesn't get mutated anymore console.log(defaultSettings); // { // power: true, // soundSettings: { // volume: 50, // bass: 20 // } // } Don’t confuse reassignment with mutation

When you reassign a variable, you change what it points to. In the following example, a is changed from 11 to 100.

let a = 11; a = 100;

When you mutate an object, it gets changed. The reference to the object stays the same.

const egg = { name: "Humpty Dumpty" }; egg.isBroken = false; Wrapping up

Mutation is scary because it can cause your code to break without your knowing about it. Even if you suspect the cause of breakage is a mutation, it can be hard for you to pinpoint the code that created the mutation. So the best way to prevent code from breaking unknowingly is to make sure your objects don’t mutate from the get-go.

To prevent objects from mutating, you can use libraries like ImmutableJS and Mori.js, or use Object.assign and Object.freeze.

Take note that Object.assign and Object.freeze can only prevent direct properties from mutating. If you need to prevent multiple layers of objects from mutating, you’ll need libraries like assignment and deep-freeze.

Categories: thinktime

Getting paid what you deserve

Seth Godin - Tue 09th Jan 2018 20:01
You never do. Instead, you get paid what other people think you're worth. That's an empathic flip that makes it all make sense. Instead of feeling undervalued or disrespected, you can focus on creating a reputation and a work product...        Seth Godin
Categories: thinktime

Stuck on what's next

Seth Godin - Mon 08th Jan 2018 20:01
When confronted with too many good options, it's easy to get paralyzed. The complaint is that we don't know what to do next, because we're pulled in many good directions--and doing one thing with focus means not doing something else....        Seth Godin
Categories: thinktime

David Rowe: Engage the Silent Drive

Planet Linux Australia - Mon 08th Jan 2018 09:01

I’ve been busy electrocuting my boat – here are our first impressions of the Torqueedo Cruise 2.0T on the water.

About 2 years ago I decided to try sailing, so I bought a second hand Hartley TS16; a popular small “trailer sailor” here in Australia. Since then I have been getting out once every week, having some very pleasant days with friends and family, and even at times by myself. Sailing really takes you away from everything else in the world. It keeps you busy as you are always pulling a rope or adjusting this and that, and is physically very active as you are clambering all over the boat. Mentally there is a lot to learn, and I started as a complete nautical noob.

Sailing is so quiet and peaceful, you get propelled by the wind using aerodynamics and it feels like like magic. However this is marred by the noise of outboard motors, which are typically used at the start and end of the day to get the boat to the point where it can sail. They are also useful to get you out of trouble in high seas/wind, or when the wind dies. I often use the motor to “un hit” Australia when I accidentally lodge myself on a sand bar (I have a lot of accidents like that).

The boat came with an ancient 2 stroke which belched smoke and noise. After about 12 months this motor suffered a terminal melt down (impeller failure and over heated) so it was replaced with a modern 5HP Honda 4-stroke, which is much quieter and very fuel efficient.

My long term goal was to “electrocute” the boat and replace the infernal combustion outboard engine with an electric motor and battery pack. I recently bit the bullet and obtained a Torqeedo Cruise 2kW outboard from Eco Boats Australia.

My friend Matt and I tested the motor today and are really thrilled. Matt is an experienced Electrical Engineer and sailor so was an ideal companion for the first run of the Torqueedo.

Torqueedo Cruise 2.0 First Impressions

It’s silent – incredibly so. Just a slight whine conducted from the motor/gearbox pod beneath the water. The sound of water flowing around the boat is louder!

The acceleration is impressive, better than the 4-stroke. Make sure you sit down. That huge, low RPM prop and loads of torque. We settled on 1000W, experimenting with other power levels.

The throttle control is excellent, you can dial up any speed you want. This made parking (mooring) very easy compared to the 4-stroke which is more of a “single speed” motor (idles at 3 knots, 4-5 knots top speed) and is unwieldy for parking.

It’s fit for purpose. This is not a low power “trolling” motor, it is every bit as powerful as the modern Honda 5HP 4-stroke. We did a A/B test and obtained the same top speed (5 knots) in the same conditions (wind/tide/stretch of water). We used it with 15 knot winds and 1m seas and it was the real deal – pushing the boat exactly where we wanted to go with authority. This is not a compromise solution. The Torqueedo shows internal combustion who’s house it is.

We had some fun sneaking up on kayaks at low power, getting to within a few metres before they heard us. Other boaties saw us gliding past with the sails down and couldn’t work out how we were moving!

A hidden feature is Azipod steering – it steers through more than 270 degrees. You can reverse without reverse gear, and we did “donuts” spinning on the keel!

Some minor issues: Unlike the Honda the the Torqueedo doesn’t tilt complete out of the water when sailing, leaving some residual drag from the motor/propeller pod. It also has to be removed from the boat for trailering, due to insufficient road clearance.

Walk Through

Here are the two motors with the boat out of the water:

It’s quite a bit longer than the Honda, mainly due to the enormous prop. The centres of the two props are actually only 7cm apart in height above ground. I had some concerns about ground clearance, both when trailering and also in the water. I have enough problems hitting Australia and like the way my boat can float in just 30cm of water. I discussed this with my very helpful Torqueedo dealer, Chris. He said tests with short and long version suggested this wasn’t a problem and in fact the “long” version provided better directional control. More water on top of the prop is a good thing. They recommend 50mm minimum, I have about 100mm.

To get started I made up a 24V battery pack using a plastic tub and 8 x 3.2V 100AH Lithium cells, left over from my recent EV battery upgrade. The cells are in varying conditions; I doubt any of them have 100AH capacity after 8 years of being hammered in my EV. On the day we ran for nearly 2 hours before one of the weaker cells dipped beneath 2.5V. I’ll sort through my stock of second hand cells some time to optimise the pack.

The pack plus motor weighs 41kg, the 5HP Honda plus 5l petrol 32kg. At low power (600W, 3.5 knots), this 2.5kWHr pack will give us a range of 14 nm or 28km. Plenty – on a huge days sailing we cover 40km, of which just 5km would be on motor.

All that power on board is handy too, for example the load of a fridge would be trivial compared to the motor, and a 100W HF radio no problem. So now I can quaff ice-cold sparkling shiraz or a nice beer, while having an actual conversation and not choking on exhaust fumes!

Here’s Matt taking us for a test drive, not much to the Torqueedo above the water:

For a bit of fun we ran both motors (maybe 10HP equivalent) and hit 7 knots, almost getting the Hartley up on the plane. Does this make it a Hybrid boat?


We are in love. This is the future of boating. For sale – one 5HP Honda 4-stroke.

Categories: thinktime

Hiding from the mission

Seth Godin - Sun 07th Jan 2018 20:01
We do this in two ways: The first is refusing to be clear and precise about what the mission is. Avoiding specifics about what we hope to accomplish and for whom. Being vague about success and (thus about failure). After...        Seth Godin
Categories: thinktime

Linux Users of Victoria (LUV) Announce: Annual Penguin Picnic, January 28, 2018

Planet Linux Australia - Sun 07th Jan 2018 19:01
Start: Jan 28 2018 12:00 End: Jan 28 2018 18:00 Start: Jan 28 2018 12:00 End: Jan 28 2018 18:00 Location:  Yarra Bank Reserve, Hawthorn.

The Linux Users of Victoria Annual Penguin Picnic will be held on Sunday, January 28, starting at 12 noon at the Yarra Bank Reserve, Hawthorn.

LUV would like to acknowledge Infoxchange for the Richmond venue.

Linux Users of Victoria Inc., is a subcommitee of Linux Australia.

January 28, 2018 - 12:00

read more

Categories: thinktime

What sort of performance?

Seth Godin - Sat 06th Jan 2018 20:01
It's not unusual for something to be positioned as the high performance alternative. The car that can go 0 to 60 in three seconds, the corkscrew that's five times faster, the punch press that's incredibly efficient... The thing is, though,...        Seth Godin
Categories: thinktime


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