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Resurrecting Dead Personas

a list apart - Wed 27th Jul 2016 00:07

Being a user-centered designer means that you deliberately seek out the stories, data, and rationale behind your users’ motivations. You endeavor to keep user concerns at the forefront of every design decision, and regularly conduct research and collect data.

But collecting facts about users isn’t the same as knowing your users. Research and data need to be regularly aggregated, analyzed, and synthesized into a format that is both understandable and accessible at critical moments. You need to turn user facts into user wisdom, and one of the most common methods for doing this is to develop user personas.

Type “how to build user personas” into your favorite search engine and you will get thousands of results outlining different templates and examples of personas. Across the tech industry, personas “put a human face on aggregated data,” and help design and product teams focus on the details that really matter. Studies have shown that companies can see 4x the return on investment in personas, which explains why some firms spend upwards of $120,000 on these design tools.

However, while it is common for design teams to spend considerable amounts of time and money developing personas, it is almost as common to see those personas abandoned and unused after a while. Everett McKay, Principal at UX Design Edge, has pointed out that user personas can fail for a number of reasons, such as:

  • They do not reflect real target users.
  • They are not developed with product goals in mind.
  • They are not embedded into team processes.

I agree with everything McKay suggests, but I would add that personas fail largely because of one common misconception: the false idea that once you build a persona, you’re done. As designers, we know that the first version of a product is never perfect, but with multiple rounds of design and research it can be made better. Personas are no different.

To recover personas that have become lifeless, here’s how you can iterate on them with periodic research and use them to achieve tangible goals. The following steps will help ensure you see value from the investment you made developing them in the first place. Let’s put your personas (back) to work and incorporate them into your design and development process.

How a persona dies

Let’s imagine you work at a company called Amazing Childcare that creates tools to help parents find childcare options for their children. Let’s also say you have the following data and statistics for

  • 82% of customers are between the ages of 30 and 35, and 73% of those are female.
  • The most common concerns around finding childcare (as reported in user interviews) are cost and quality of care received.
  • has a homepage bounce rate of 40%.
  • Customer satisfaction survey shows an average satisfaction rating of 6.5 (out of 10).

While this data is interesting, it is hard to process and assimilate into your design practice. You still need to go through the arduous work of understanding why the majority of users are who they are, what problems they are trying to solve, and how you can better meet their needs. So, you decide to create a persona.

The persona you create is Susan, a 34-year old working mother of a two-year-old. She is interested in finding a qualified nanny that has passed a background check. Susan, like all freshly made personas, is a much more thought-provoking platform for crafting design solutions than a spreadsheet of numbers. She is someone we can imagine, remember, and empathize with.

This is the point in the story when Susan dies.

At first, the design team enjoys thinking about and designing for Susan. Having her “in the room” is thought provoking and interesting, but over time, Susan is talked about less and less. She starts to feel irrelevant to the products you’re building. You realize that Susan has “died,” leaving a lifeless, zombie Susan sitting in her place. You consider all the research and work your team put into creating Susan and wonder “what went wrong?”

The problem is that your personas remained static and unmoving while the company, Amazing Childcare, grew and changed.

Review, research, repeat

As your product and marketing strategies change over time, so do your target users. In our example, Amazing Childcare may have started with a large user base of parents looking for full-time childcare options for their toddlers, but over time, the demographic changed. Now, it’s most frequently used by parents of school-age children looking for one-time, “date night” babysitters. When this happens, your original personas—like Susan—are no longer useful for thinking through design problems. Unless you periodically validate your personas, you’ll be responding to old assumptions (based on your outdated personas) rather than who your customers really are. In other words, your real-world users changed, but Susan didn’t.

To remedy this, you should regularly conduct persona research, using a variety of methods to evaluate whether your personas still reflect:

  • The most common demographic, budget, and purchase scenarios of your users
  • The main behavior patterns of your users
  • The motivations and goals of your users.

You can conduct your persona research on a schedule, such as once a quarter, or you can opportunistically work it into the usability research you already do. Either way, you need to make a commitment to keeping your personas relevant.

If we go back to our example at Amazing Childcare, your personas would change based on the new research. Susan may still be a valid persona for your company, but your research would show that she no longer represents its core users, and should therefore no longer be your primary persona. Based on the updated research, you could develop a new persona named Beverly. Beverly is a 42-year-old mother of a 10-year-old boy and 7-year-old girl. Unlike Susan, Beverly is interested in finding an inexpensive babysitter for occasional date nights with her husband. You would use Beverly to think about the needs of the core user base, but only use Susan when you’re designing tools that directly cater to the demographic she represents.

It is natural and necessary for personas to evolve and change; personas like Susan can drift out of the limelight of “primary persona” and make room for new friends like Beverly. Your ecosystem of personas should be as dynamic as your ecosystem of users, and regular persona research will ensure that they evolve in sync.

Set goals

Personas can help you do more than think about and design for target users. They can (and should) be used to help you reach real, tangible goals. Goals that reflect ways of increasing business, creating better user experiences, or both, will help you update your personas and develop your product. Even if you are not sure what is possible to achieve with personas, you should make an attempt at setting goals. Goals (even unachievable ones) provide a means for tracking the return on investment of your efforts.

To get started, try using this format from Tamara Adlin and John Pruitt.

The Persona Lifecycle   Goal or issue How things are today How we want things to be tomorrow Ways to measure change Description A problem you would like your personas to solve. A description of the current state of affairs. A description of the “first step” in achieving your goal. A description of analytics, research, or other methods you can use to measure progress.

Figure 1: Tamara Adlin and John Pruitt’s Essential Persona Lifecycle format

For each goal, you will need to identify how you’ll measure progress toward that objective. You may need to create surveys and interview scripts for some, while for others, you may need analytics tools.

Here is an example of a persona goal we could set at Amazing Childcare.

Amazing Childcare Persona Goal Goal or issue How things are today How we want things to be tomorrow Ways to measure change Use our primary persona to drive feature development. We have just started our business and believe users like “Susan” (our primary persona) will want certain features (like nanny search and background checks) to be truly satisfied. However, the Susan persona needs to be validated and tested. We want to thoroughly research and validate our Susan persona and better understand how Amazing Childcare can meet our primary users’ needs. We can validate the Susan persona and measure customer satisfaction through a series of surveys and interviews. We will know we’ve succeeded when the next feature release increases customer satisfaction with Amazing Childcare.

Figure 2: Example persona goal for Amazing Childcare

Once you have created a set of goals for your personas, you can evaluate them as part of your regular research plan. If you find that you’re falling behind on any of your goals, you can research and recalibrate your personas based on the metrics you care about.

For instance, if we evaluated the Susan persona in the ways we’ve outlined above, the data we would uncover indicates that Susan doesn’t actually represent the majority of our users. We would then reevaluate our personas and ultimately develop our new primary persona, Beverly.

Putting personas (back) to work

While research and goal setting are good practices, in and of themselves, the real benefit of personas can be seen when you put them to use. Here are some suggestions for how to incorporate personas into your design practice:

  • Start putting the face of your target persona at the top of every sketch, wireframe, and prototype. Encourage others to do the same.
  • Put a comment in every product story or ticket that states the target persona for that feature.
  • Shake up regular design meetings by asking a few people to roleplay as your personas. Throughout the rest of the meeting, have them look at every new design through the lens of their assigned persona.
  • Conduct a workshop. Activities such as Persona Empathy Mapping reinvigorate and add detail to personas.

One of my favorite ways to utilize personas is to write scenarios in which they are the main character, then use them to explain research results. For example, let’s say we’re evaluating a new interface for the sign-up and login process on our website. Instead of presenting raw numbers (e.g., “10% of new users couldn’t find the sign-up interface”), we can present the data in a scenario, providing a way to understand a design problem that goes beyond statistics. Here is an example:

Beverly came to the Amazing Childcare website to evaluate whether the company would actually be useful in helping her find reliable babysitters for her family. She decides that she would like to try the product and wonders if there is a free trial available. She searches the content of the web page for the words “free trial” or “sign-up,” but is unsuccessful. She does not think the “login” button applies to her, since she is a new user and does not yet have an account. She does not think to click on the “login” button, so she fails to find the new-member sign-up interface.

In the example above, we’re using Beverly to describe feature requirements, usage statistics, and study results. The benefits of using personas to explain these components is that you are simultaneously making messy and complex details easier to understand, and forcing yourself to deeply consider who you’re really designing for. According to Alan Cooper, you should “[d]esign each interface for a single, primary persona.” Focusing on a persona like Beverly forces us to define the parameters of what our design should accomplish and helps us ultimately evaluate its success.

Keeping personas alive

Developing personas and keeping them alive can be difficult. Without regular care and feeding, they can waste away and your investment in them will be lost. In The User Is Always Right, Steve Mulder described it best:

“It’s very easy to create personas, then think your work is done. But just having personas doesn’t mean people will accept them. Just accepting the personas doesn’t mean people will remember them. Just remembering the personas doesn’t mean people will actually use them. Your job is to keep the personas alive so they show their worth.”

To ensure your personas are accepted, remembered, and used, you need to be the persona advocate on your team. As the persona advocate, you need to:

  • Regularly conduct persona research.
  • Set goals.
  • Make sure there is always a place for your personas at the design table.

With creativity and persistence, you can cultivate a suite of well-researched, battle-tested user personas.

While being a persona’s advocate may seem like a lot of work, it’s worth doing. Personas are more than just a document, they are an experience. Taking the time to draft a set of user personas, use them, evaluate them, research them, and refresh them, forces you to consider who your users are, what their goals are, and how your product fits into their lives.

If you’re ready to become the persona advocate on your team, here are some additional resources to help you along:

Books Articles
Categories: thinktime

In search of palliatives

Seth Godin - Tue 26th Jul 2016 18:07
A palliative is a treatment that soothes even if it can't cure the illness. By all means, whenever you can, fix the problem, go to the root cause, come up with a better design... But when you can't (and that's...        Seth Godin
Categories: thinktime

Pia Waugh: Gather-ing some thoughts on societal challenges

Planet Linux Australia - Tue 26th Jul 2016 15:07

On the weekend I went to the GatherNZ event in Auckland, an interesting unconference. I knew there were going to be some pretty awesome people hanging out which gave a chance for me to catch up with and introduce the family to some friends, hear some interesting ideas, and road test some ideas I’ve been having about where we are all heading in the future. I ran a session I called “Choose your own adventure, please” and it was packed! Below is a bit of a write up of what was discussed as there was a lot of interest in how to keep the conversation going. I confess, I didn’t expect so much interest as to be asked where the conversation could be continued, but this is a good start I think. I was particularly chuffed when a few attendee said the session blew their minds

I’m going to be blogging a fair bit over the coming months on this topic in any case as it relates to a book I’m in the process of researching and writing, but more on that next week!

Choose your own adventure, please

We are at a significant tipping point in history. The world and the very foundations our society were built on have changed, but we are still largely stuck in the past in how we think and plan for the future. If we don’t make some active decisions about how we live, think and prioritise, then we will find ourselves subconsciously reinforcing the status quo at every turn and not in a position to genuinely create a better future for all. I challenge everyone to consider how they think and to actively choose their own adventure, rather than just doing what was done before.

How has the world changed? Well many point to the changes in technology and science, and the impact these have had on our quality of life. I think the more interesting changes are in how power and perspectives has changed, which created the environment for scientific and technological progress in the first instance, but also created the ability for many many more individuals to shape the world around them. We have seen traditional paradigms of scarcity, centralisation and closed systems be outflanked and outdated by modern shifts to surplus, distribution and open systems. When you were born a peasant and died one, what power did you have to affect your destiny? Nowadays individuals are more powerful than ever in our collective history, with the traditionally centralised powers of publishing, property, communications, monitoring and even enforcement now distributed internationally to anyone with access to a computer and the internet, which is over a third of the world’s population and growing. I blogged about this idea more here. Of course, these shifts are proving challenging for traditional institutions and structures to keep up, but individuals are simply routing around these dinosaurs, putting such organisations in the uncomfortable position of either adapting or rendering themselves irrelevant.

Choices, choices, choices

We discussed a number of specific premises or frameworks that underpinned the development of much of the world we know today, but are now out of touch with the changing world we live in. It was a fascinating discussion, so thank you to everyone who came and contributed and although I think we only scratched the surface, I think it gave a lot of people food for thought

  • Open vs closed – open systems (open knowledge, data, government, source, science) are outperforming closed ones in almost everything from science, technology, business models, security models, government and political systems, human knowledge and social models. Open systems enable rapid feedback loops that support greater iteration and improvements in response to the world, and open systems create a natural motivation for the players involved to perform well and gain the benefits of a broader knowledge, experience and feedback base. Open systems also support a competitive collaborative environment, where organisations can collaborate on the common, but compete on their specialisation. We discussed how security by obscurity was getting better understood as a largely false premise and yet, there are still so many projects, decisions, policies or other initiatives where closed is the assumed position, in contrast to the general trend towards openness across the board.
  • Central to distributed – many people and organisations still act like kings in castles, protecting their stuff from the masses and only collaborating with walls and moats in place to keep out the riff raff. The problem is that everything is becoming more distributed, and the smartest people will never all be in the one castle, so if you want the best outcomes, be it for a policy, product, scientific discovery, service or anything else, you need to consider what is out there and how you can be a part of a broader ecosystem. Building on the shoulders of giants and being a shoulder for others to build upon. Otherwise you will always be slower than those who know how to be a node in the network. Although deeply hierarchical systems still exist, individuals are learning how to route around the hierarchy (which is only an imaginary construct in any case). There will always be specialists and the need for central controls over certain things however, if whatever you do is done in isolation, it will only be effective in isolation. Everything and everyone is more and more interconnected so we need to behave more in this way to gain the benefits, and to ensure what we do is relevant to those we do it for. By tapping into the masses, we can also tap into much greater capacity and feedback loops to ensure how we iterate is responsive to the environment we operate in. Examples of the shift included media, democracy, citizen movements, ideology, security, citizen science, gov as an API, transnational movements and the likely impact of blockchain technologies on the financial sector.
  • Scarcity to surplus – the shift from scarcity to surplus is particularly interesting because so much of our laws, governance structures, business models, trade agreements and rules for living are based around antiquated ideas of scarcity and property. We now apply the idea of ownership to everything and I shared a story of a museum claiming ownership on human remains taken from Australia. How can you own that and then refuse to repatriate the remains to that community? Copyright was developed when the ability to copy something was costly and hard. Given digital property (including a lot of “IP”) is so easily replicated with low/zero cost, it has wrought havoc with how we think about IP and yet we have continued to duplicate this antiquated thinking in a time of increasing surplus. This is a problem because new technologies could genuinely create surplus in physical properties, especially with the developments in nano-technologies and 3D printing, but if we bind up these technologies to only replicate the status quo, we will never realise the potential to solve major problems of scarcity, like hunger or poverty.
  • Nationalism and tribalism – because of global communications, more people feel connected with their communities of interest, which can span geopolitical, language, disability and other traditional barriers to forming groups. This will also have an impact on loyalties because people will have an increasingly complex relationship with the world around them. Citizens can and will increasingly jurisdiction shop for a nation that supports their lifestyle and ideological choices, the same way that multinational corporates have jurisdiction shopped for low tax, low regulation environments for some time. On a more micro level, individuals engage in us vs them behaviours all the time, and it gets in the way of working together.
  • Human augmentation and (dis)ability – what it means to look and be human will start to change as more human augmentation starts to become mainstream. Not just cosmetic augmentations, but functional. The body hacking movement has been playing with human abilities and has discovered that the human brain can literally adapt to and start to interpret foreign neurological inputs, which opens up the path to nor just augmenting existing human abilities, but expanding and inventing new human abilities. If we consider the olympics have pretty much found the limit of natural human sporting achievement and have become arguably a bit boring, perhaps we could lift the limitations on the para-olympics and start to see rocket powered 100m sprints, or cyborg Judo competitions. As we start to explore what we can do with ourselves physically, neurologically and chemically, it will challenge a lot of views on what it means to be human. By why should we limit ourselves?
  • Outsourcing personal responsibility – with advances in technology, many have become lazy about how far their personal responsibility extends. We outsource small tasks, then larger ones, then strategy, then decision making, and we end up having no personal responsibility for major things in our world. Projects can fail, decisions become automated, ethics get buried in code, but individuals can keep their noses clean. We need to stop trying to avoid risk to the point where we don’t do anything and we need to ensure responsibility for human decisions are not automated beyond human responsibility.
  • Unconscious bias of privileged views, including digital colonialism – the need to be really aware of our assumptions and try to not simply reinvent the status quo or reinforce “structural white supremacy” as it was put by the contributor. Powerful words worth pondering! Explicit inclusion was put forward as something to prioritise.
  • Work – how we think about work! If we are moving into a more automated landscape, perhaps how we think about work will fundamentally change which would have enormous ramifications for the social and financial environment. Check out Tim Dunlop’s writing on this
  • Facts to sensationalism – the flow of information and communications are now so rapid that people, media and organisations are motivated to ever more sensationalism rather than considered opinions or facts. Definitely a shift worth considering!

Other feedback from the room included:

  • The importance of considering ethics, values and privilege in making decisions.
  • The ability to route around hierarchy, but the inevitable push back of established powers on the new world.
  • The idea that we go in cycles of power from centralised to distributed and back again. I confess, this idea is new to me and I’ll be pondering on it more.

Any feedback, thinking or ideas welcome in the comments below It was a fun session.

Categories: thinktime

What have we become? (And what are we becoming?)

Seth Godin - Mon 25th Jul 2016 19:07
Every day, we change. We move (slowly) toward the person we'll end up being. Not just us, but our organizations. Our political systems. Our culture. Are you more generous than the you of five or ten years ago? More confident?...        Seth Godin
Categories: thinktime

"So simple it doesn't need instructions"

Seth Godin - Sun 24th Jul 2016 19:07
Eager (and less-talented) designers often get confused about this instruction, turning it into: "It doesn't have instructions, therefore it's simple. Consider a hotel shower. It has 11 things that might be dials, and five that actually are. The alert person,...        Seth Godin
Categories: thinktime

Managing the gap

Seth Godin - Sat 23rd Jul 2016 18:07
There's a space between where you are now and where you want to be, ought to be, are capable of being. A gap between your reality and your possibility. Imagine that space as a gulf or a chasm and you'll...        Seth Godin
Categories: thinktime

Simon Lyall: Gather Conference 2016 – Afternoon

Planet Linux Australia - Sat 23rd Jul 2016 15:07

The Gathering

Chloe Swarbrick

  • Whose responsibility is it to disrupt the system?
  • Maybe try and engage with the system we have for a start before writing it off.
  • You disrupt the system yourself or you hold the system accountable

Nick McFarlane

  • He wrote a book
  • Rock Stars are dicks to work with

So you want to Start a Business

  • Hosted by Reuben and Justin (the accountant)
  • Things you need to know in your first year of business
  • How serious is the business, what sort of structure
    • If you are serious, you have to do things properly
    • Have you got paying customers yet
    • Could just be an idea or a hobby
  • Sole Trader vs Incorporated company vs Trust vs Partnership
  • Incorperated
    • Directors and Shareholders needed to be decided on
    • Can take just half an hour
  • when to get a GST number?
    • If over $60k turnover a year
    • If you have lots of stuff you plan to claim back.
  • Have an accounting System from Day 1 – Xero Pretty good
  • Get an advisor or mentor that is not emotionally invested in your company
  • If partnership then split up responsibilities so you can hold each other accountable for specific items
  • If you are using Xero then your accountant should be using Xero directly not copying it into a different system.
  • Remuneration
    • Should have a shareholders agreement
    • PAYE possibility from drawings or put 30% aside
    • Even if only a small hobby company you will need to declare income to IRD especially non-trivial level.
  • What Level to start at Xero?
    • Probably from the start if the business is intended to be serious
    • A bit of pain to switch over later
  • Don’t forget about ACC
  • Remember you are due provisional tax once you get over the the $2500 for the previous year.
  • Home Office expense claim – claim percentage of home rent, power etc
  • Get in professionals to help

Diversity in Tech

  • Diversity is important
    • Why is it important?
    • Does it mean the same for everyone
  • Have people with different “ways of thinking” then we will have a diverse views then wider and better solutions
  • example “Polish engineer could analysis a Polish specific character input error”
  • example “Controlling a robot in Samoan”, robots are not just in english
  • Stereotypes for some groups to specific jobs, eg “Indians in tech support”
  • Example: All hires went though University of Auckland so had done the same courses etc
  • How do you fix it when people innocently hire everyone from the same background? How do you break the pattern? No be the first different-hire represent everybody in that group?
  • I didn’t want to be a trail-blazer
  • Wow’ed out at “Women in tech” event, first time saw “majority of people are like me” in a bar.
  • “If he is a white male and I’m going to hire him on the team that is already full of white men he better be exception”
  • Worried about implication that “diversity” vs “Meritocracy” and that diverse candidates are not as good
  • Usual over-representation of white-males in the discussion even in topics like this.
  • Notion that somebody was only hired to represent diversity is very harmful especially for that person
  • If you are hiring for a tech position then 90% of your candidates will be white-males, try place your diversity in getting more diverse group applying for the jobs not tilt in the actual hiring.
  • Even in maker spaces where anyone is welcome, there are a lot fewer women. Blames mens mags having things unfinished, women’s mags everything is perfect so women don’t want to show off something that is unfinished.
  • Need to make the workforce diverse now to match the younger people coming into it
  • Need to cover “power income” people who are not exposed to tech
  • Even a small number are role models for the future for the young people today
  • Also need to address the problem of women dropping out of tech in the 30s and 40s. We can’t push girls into an “environment filled with acid”
  • Example taking out “cocky arrogant males” from classes into “advanced stream” and the remaining class saw women graduating and staying in at a much higher rate.


  • Paul Spain from Podcast New Zealand organising
  • Easiest to listen to when doing manual stuff or in car or bus
  • Need to avoid overload of commercials, eg interview people from the company about the topic of interest rather than about their product
  • Big firms putting money into podcasting
  • In the US 21% of the market are listening every single month. In NZ perhaps more like 5% since not a lot of awareness or local content
  • Some radios shows are re-cutting and publishing them
  • Not a good directory of NZ podcasts
  • Advise people use proper equipment if possible if more than a once-off. Bad sound quality is very noticeable.
  • One person: 5 part series on immigration and immigrants in NZ
  • Making the charts is a big exposure
  • Apples “new and noteworthy” list
  • Domination by traditional personalities and existing broadcasters at present. But that only helps traction within New Zealand




Categories: thinktime

Francois Marier: Replacing a failed RAID drive

Planet Linux Australia - Sat 23rd Jul 2016 14:07

Here's the complete procedure I followed to replace a failed drive from a RAID array on a Debian machine.

Replace the failed drive

After seeing that /dev/sdb had been kicked out of my RAID array, I used smartmontools to identify the serial number of the drive to pull out:

smartctl -a /dev/sdb

Armed with this information, I shutdown the computer, pulled the bad drive out and put the new blank one in.

Initialize the new drive

After booting with the new blank drive in, I copied the partition table using parted.

First, I took a look at what the partition table looks like on the good drive:

$ parted /dev/sda unit s print

and created a new empty one on the replacement drive:

$ parted /dev/sdb unit s mktable gpt

then I ran mkpart for all 4 partitions and made them all the same size as the matching ones on /dev/sda.

Finally, I ran toggle 1 bios_grub (boot partition) and toggle X raid (where X is the partition number) for all RAID partitions, before verifying using print that the two partition tables were now the same.

Resync/recreate the RAID arrays

To sync the data from the good drive (/dev/sda) to the replacement one (/dev/sdb), I ran the following on my RAID1 partitions:

mdadm /dev/md0 -a /dev/sdb2 mdadm /dev/md2 -a /dev/sdb4

and kept an eye on the status of this sync using:

watch -n 2 cat /proc/mdstat

In order to speed up the sync, I used the following trick:

blockdev --setra 65536 "/dev/md0" blockdev --setra 65536 "/dev/md2" echo 300000 > /proc/sys/dev/raid/speed_limit_min echo 1000000 > /proc/sys/dev/raid/speed_limit_max

Then, I recreated my RAID0 swap partition like this:

mdadm /dev/md1 --create --level=0 --raid-devices=2 /dev/sda3 /dev/sdb3 mkswap /dev/md1

Because the swap partition is brand new (you can't restore a RAID0, you need to re-create it), I had to update two things:

  • replace the UUID for the swap mount in /etc/fstab, with the one returned by mkswap (or running blkid and looking for /dev/md1)
  • replace the UUID for /dev/md1 in /etc/mdadm/mdadm.conf with the one returned for /dev/md1 by mdadm --detail --scan
Ensuring that I can boot with the replacement drive

In order to be able to boot from both drives, I reinstalled the grub boot loader onto the replacement drive:

grub-install /dev/sdb

before rebooting with both drives to first make sure that my new config works.

Then I booted without /dev/sda to make sure that everything would be fine should that drive fail and leave me with just the new one (/dev/sdb).

This test obviously gets the two drives out of sync, so I rebooted with both drives plugged in and then had to re-add /dev/sda to the RAID1 arrays:

mdadm /dev/md0 -a /dev/sda2 mdadm /dev/md2 -a /dev/sda4

Once that finished, I rebooted again with both drives plugged in to confirm that everything is fine:

cat /proc/mdstat

Then I ran a full SMART test over the new replacement drive:

smartctl -t long /dev/sdb
Categories: thinktime

Simon Lyall: Gather Conference 2016 – Morning

Planet Linux Australia - Sat 23rd Jul 2016 09:07

At the Gather Conference again for about the 6th time. It is a 1-day tech-orientated unconference held in Auckland every year.

The day is split into seven streamed sessions each 40 minutes long (of about 8 parallel rooms of events that are each scheduled and run by attendees) plus and opening and a keynote session.

How to Steer your own career – Shirley Tricker

  • Asked people hands up on their current job situation, FT vs PT, sinmgle v multiple jobs
  • Alternatives to traditional careers of work. possible to craft your career
  • Recommended Blog – Free Range Humans
  • Job vs Career
    • Job – something you do for somebody else
    • Career – Uniqie to you, your life’s work
    • Career – What you do to make a contribution
  • Predicted that a greater number of people will not stay with one (or even 2 or 3) employers through their career
  • Success – defined by your goals, lifestyle wishes
  • What are your strengths – Know how you are valuable, what you can offer people/employers, ways you can branch out
  • Hard and Soft Skills (soft skills defined broadly, things outside a regular job description)
  • Develop soft skills
    • List skills and review ways to develop and improve them
    • Look at people you admire and copy them
    • Look at job desctions
  • Skills you might need for a portfilio career
    • Good at organising, marketing, networking
    • flexible, work alone, negotiation
    • Financial literacy (handle your accounts)
  • Getting started
    • Start small ( don’t give up your day job overnight)
    • Get training via work or independently
    • Develop you strengths
    • Fix weaknesses
    • Small experiments
    • cheap and fast (start a blog)
    • Don’t have to start out as an expert, you can learn as you go
  • Just because you are in control doesn’t make it easy
  • Resources
    • Seth Goden
    • Tim Ferris
    • eg outsources her writing.
  • Tools
    • Xero
    • WordPress
    • Canva for images
    • Meetup
    • Odesk and other freelance websites
  • Feedback from Audience
    • Have somebody to report to, eg meet with friend/adviser monthly to chat and bounce stuff off
    • Cultivate Women’s mentoring group
    • This doesn’t seem to filter through to young people, they feel they have to pick a career at 18 and go to university to prep for that.
    • Give advice to people and this helps you define
    • Try and make the world a better place: enjoy the work you are doing, be happy and proud of the outcome of what you are doing and be happy that it is making the world a bit better
    • How to I “motivate myself” without a push from your employer?
      • Do something that you really want to do so you won’t need external motivation
      • Find someone who is doing something write and see what they did
      • Awesome for introverts
    • If you want to start a startup then work for one to see what it is like and learn skills
    • You don’t have to have a startup in your 20s, you can learn your skills first.
    • Sometimes you have to do a crappy job at the start to get onto the cool stuff later. You have to look at the goal or path sometimes

Books and Podcasts – Tanya Johnson

Stuff people recommend

  • Intelligent disobedience – Ira
  • Hamilton the revolution – based on the musical
  • Never Split the difference – Chris Voss (ex hostage negotiator)
  • The Three Body Problem – Lia CiXin – Sci Fi series
  • Lucky Peach – Food and fiction
  • Unlimited Memory
  • The Black Swan and Fooled by Randomness
  • The Setup ( website
  • Tim Ferris Podcast
  • Freakonomics Podcast
  • Moonwalking with Einstein
  • Clothes, Music, Boy – Viv Albertine
  • TIP: Amazon Whispersync for Kindle App (audiobook across various platforms)
  • TIP: Blinkist – 15 minute summaries of books
  • An Intimate History of Humanity – Theodore Zenden
  • How to Live – Sarah Bakewell
  • TIP: Pocketcasts is a good podcast app for Android.
  • Tested Podcast from Mythbusters people
  • Trumpcast podcast from Slate
  • A Fighting Chance – Elizabeth Warren
  • The Choice – Og Mandino
  • The Good life project Podcast
  • The Ted Radio Hour Podcast (on 1.5 speed)
  • This American Life
  • How to be a Woman by Caitlin Moran
  • The Hard thing about Hard things books
  • Flashboys
  • The Changelog Podcast – Interview people doing Open Source software
  • The Art of Oppertunity Roseland Zander
  • Red Rising Trilogy by Piers Brown
  • On the Rag podcast by the Spinoff
  • Hamish and Andy podcast
  • Radiolab podcast
  • Hardcore History podcast
  • Car Talk podcast
  • Ametora – Story of Japanese menswear since WW2
  • .net rocks podcast
  • How not to be wrong
  • Savage Love Podcast
  • Friday Night Comedy from the BBC (especially the News Quiz)
  • Answer me this Podcast
  • Back to work podcast
  • Reply All podcast
  • The Moth
  • Serial
  • American Blood
  • The Productivity podcast
  • Keeping it 1600
  • Ruby Rogues Podcast
  • Game Change – John Heilemann
  • The Road less Travelled – M Scott Peck
  • The Power of Now
  • Snow Crash – Neil Stevensen

My Journey to becoming a Change Agent – Suki Xiao

  • Start of 2015 was a policy adviser at Ministry
  • Didn’t feel connected to job and people making policies for
  • Outside of work was a Youthline counsellor
  • Wanted to make a difference, organised some internal talks
  • Wanted to make changes, got told had to be a manager to make changes (10 years away)
  • Found out about R9 accelerator. Startup accelerator looking at Govt/Business interaction and pain points
  • Get seconded to it
  • First month was very hard.
  • Speed of change was difficult, “Lean into the discomfort” – Team motto
  • Be married to the problem
    • Specific problem was making sure enough seasonal workers, came up with solution but customers didn’t like it. Was not solving the actual problem customers had.
    • Team was married to the problem, not the married to the solution
  • When went back to old job, found slower pace hard to adjust back
  • Got offered a job back at the accelerator, coaching up to 7 teams.
    • Very hard work, lots of work, burnt out
    • 50% pay cut
    • Worked out wasn’t “Agile” herself
    • Started doing personal Kanban boards
    • Cut back number of teams coaching, higher quality
  • Spring Board
    • Place can work at sustainable pace
    • Working at Nomad 8 as an independent Agile consultant
    • Work on separate companies but some support from colleges
  • Find my place
    • Joined Xero as a Agile Team Facilitator
  • Takeaways
    • Anybody can be a change agent
    • An environment that supports and empowers
    • Look for support
  • Conversation on how you overcome the “Everest” big huge goal
    • Hard to get past the first step for some – speaker found she tended to do first think later. Others over-thought beforehand
    • It seems hard but think of the hard things you have done in your life and it is usually not as bad
    • Motivate yourself by having no money and having no choice
    • Point all the bad things out in the open, visualise them all and feel better cause they will rarely happen
    • Learn to recognise your bad patterns of thoughts
    • “The Way of Art” Steven Pressfield (skip the Angels chapter)
  • Are places Serious about Agile instead of just placing lip-service?
    • Questioner was older and found places wanted younger Agile coaches
    • Companies had to completely change into organisation, eg replace project managers
    • eg CEO is still waterfall but people lower down are into Agile. Not enough management buy-in.
    • Speaker left on client that wasn’t serious about changing
  • Went though an Agile process, made “Putting Agile into the Org” as the product
  • Show customers what the value is
  • Certification advice, all sorts of options. Nomad8 course is recomended



Categories: thinktime

"You can not make a spoon that's better than a spoon"

Seth Godin - Fri 22nd Jul 2016 19:07
Umberto Eco said that when he was talking about the form of paper books. But I think it raises a challenge for just about anyone who seeks to do something truly great in the world of design (in any of...        Seth Godin
Categories: thinktime

Russell Coker: 802.1x Authentication on Debian

Planet Linux Australia - Fri 22nd Jul 2016 17:07

I recently had to setup some Linux workstations with 802.1x authentication (described as “Ethernet authentication”) to connect to a smart switch. The most useful web site I found was the Ubuntu help site about 802.1x Authentication [1]. But it didn’t describe exactly what I needed so I’m writing a more concise explanation.

The first thing to note is that the authentication mechanism works the same way as 802.11 wireless authentication, so it’s a good idea to have the wpasupplicant package installed on all laptops just in case you need to connect to such a network.

The first step is to create a wpa_supplicant config file, I named mine /etc/wpa_supplicant_SITE.conf. The file needs contents like the following:

network={ key_mgmt=IEEE8021X eap=PEAP identity="USERNAME" anonymous_identity="USERNAME" password="PASS" phase1="auth=MD5" phase2="auth=CHAP password=PASS" eapol_flags=0 }

The first difference between what I use and the Ubuntu example is that I’m using “eap=PEAP“, that is an issue of the way the network is configured, whoever runs your switch can tell you the correct settings for that. The next difference is that I’m using “auth=CHAP” and the Ubuntu example has “auth=PAP“. The difference between those protocols is that CHAP has a challenge-response and PAP just has the password sent (maybe encrypted) over the network. If whoever runs the network says that they “don’t store unhashed passwords” or makes any similar claim then they are almost certainly using CHAP.

Change USERNAME and PASS to your user name and password.

wpa_supplicant -c /etc/wpa_supplicant_SITE.conf -D wired -i eth0

The above command can be used to test the operation of wpa_supplicant.

Successfully initialized wpa_supplicant eth0: Associated with 00:01:02:03:04:05 eth0: CTRL-EVENT-EAP-STARTED EAP authentication started eth0: CTRL-EVENT-EAP-PROPOSED-METHOD vendor=0 method=25 TLS: Unsupported Phase2 EAP method 'CHAP' eth0: CTRL-EVENT-EAP-METHOD EAP vendor 0 method 25 (PEAP) selected eth0: CTRL-EVENT-EAP-PEER-CERT depth=0 subject='' eth0: CTRL-EVENT-EAP-PEER-CERT depth=0 subject='' EAP-MSCHAPV2: Authentication succeeded EAP-TLV: TLV Result - Success - EAP-TLV/Phase2 Completed eth0: CTRL-EVENT-EAP-SUCCESS EAP authentication completed successfully eth0: CTRL-EVENT-CONNECTED - Connection to 00:01:02:03:04:05 completed [id=0 id_str=]

Above is the output of a successful test with wpa_supplicant. I replaced the MAC of the switch with 00:01:02:03:04:05. Strangely it doesn’t like “CHAP” but is automatically selecting “MSCHAPV2” and working, maybe anything other than “PAP” would do.

auto eth0 iface eth0 inet dhcp wpa-driver wired wpa-conf /etc/wpa_supplicant_SITE.conf

Above is a snippet of /etc/network/interfaces that works with this configuration.

Related posts:

  1. SASL Authentication and Debian/Wheezy After upgrading a mail server to Debian/Unstable (which will soon...
  2. Fingerprints and Authentication Dustin Kirkland wrote an interesting post about fingerprint authentication [1]....
  3. installing Xen domU on Debian Etch I have just been installing a Xen domU on Debian...
Categories: thinktime

Singular isn't about scale

Seth Godin - Thu 21st Jul 2016 19:07
Tracy Chapman was outsold by the Doobie Brothers by 40:1. But the Doobie's aren't 40 times as singular an artist as she is. Lou Reed was outsold by Van Morrison at least 40:1. But again, our image and memory of...        Seth Godin
Categories: thinktime

OpenSTEM: Conversations on Collected Health Data

Planet Linux Australia - Thu 21st Jul 2016 15:07

There are more and more wearable devices that collect a variety of health data, and other health records are kept electronically. More often than not, the people whose data it is don’t actually have access. There are very important issues to consider, and you could use this for a conversation with your students, and in assignments.

On the individual level, questions such as

  • Who should own your health data?
  • Should you be able to get an overview of who has what kind of your data?  (without fuzzy vague language)
  • Should you be able to access your own data? (directly out of a device, or online service where a device sends its data)
  • Should you be able to request a company to completely remove data from their records?

For society, questions like

  • Should a company be allowed to hoard data, or should they be required to make it accessible (open data) for other researchers?

A comment piece in this week’s Nature entitled “Lift the blockade on health data” could be used as a starting point a conversation and for additional information:

Technology titans, such as Google and Apple, are moving into health. For all the potential benefits, the incorporation of people’s health data into algorithmic ‘black boxes’ could harm science and exacerbate inequalities, warn John Wilbanks and Eric Topol in a Comment piece in this week’s Nature. “When it comes to control over our own data, health data must be where we draw the line,” they stress.

Cryptic digital profiling is already shaping society; for example, online adverts are tailored to people’s age, location, spending and browsing habits. Wilbanks and Topol envision a future in which “companies are able to trade people’s disease profiles, unbeknown to them” and where “health decisions are abstruse and difficult to challenge, and advances in understanding are used to aggressively market health-related services to people — regardless of whether those services actually benefit their health.”

The authors call for a campaigning movement similar to the environmental one to break open how people’s data are being used, and to illuminate how such information could be used in the future. In their view, “the creation of credible competitors that are open source is the most promising way to regulate” corporations that have come to “resemble small nations in their own right”.


Categories: thinktime

Living with what happens next

Seth Godin - Wed 20th Jul 2016 18:07
Most people are okay with living with the consequences of what happens. The hard part is living with our narrative about how it happened and why. If your plane is late and you miss the meeting and you don't close...        Seth Godin
Categories: thinktime

Adapting to Input

a list apart - Wed 20th Jul 2016 00:07

Jeremy Keith once observed that our fixed-width, non-responsive designs were built on top of a consensual hallucination. We knew the web didn’t have a fixed viewport size, but we willfully ignored that reality because it made our jobs easier.

The proliferation of mobile devices forced us into the light. Responsive web design gave us the techniques to design for the rediscovered reality that the web comes in many sizes.

And yet there is another consensual hallucination—the idea that desktop equals keyboard and mouse, while phones equal touch.

It’s time to break free of our assumptions about input and form factors. It’s time to reveal the truth about input.

Four truths about input
  1. Input is exploding — The last decade has seen everything from accelerometers to GPS to 3D touch.
  2. Input is a continuum — Phones have keyboards and cursors; desktop computers have touchscreens.
  3. Input is undetectable — Browser detection of touch‚ and nearly every other input type, is unreliable.
  4. Input is transient — Knowing what input someone uses one moment tells you little about what will be used next.
Being adaptable

In the early days of mobile web we created pitfalls for ourselves such as “mobile context.” We’ve since learned that mobile context is a myth. People use their phones everywhere and for any task, “especially when it’s their only or most convenient option.”

When it comes to input, there is a danger of making a similar mistake. We think of a physical keyboard as being better suited to complex tasks than an onscreen keyboard.

But there are many people whose primary access to the internet is via mobile devices. Those same people are comfortable with virtual keyboards, and we shouldn’t ask them to switch to a physical keyboard to get the best experience.

Even for those of us who spend our days on computers, sometimes a virtual keyboard is better. Perhaps we’re on a plane that has started to descend. In that moment, being able to detach a keyboard and work on a touchscreen is the difference between continuing our task or stowing our laptop for landing.

So who are we to judge what input is better? We have no more control over the input someone uses than we do the size of their screen.

Becoming flexible

Confronting the truth about input can be overwhelming at first. But we’ve been here before. We’ve learned how to design for a continuum of screen sizes; we can learn how to adapt to input—starting with these seven design principles.

Design for multiple concurrent inputs

The idea that we’re either designing for desktop-with-a-mouse or touch-on-mobile is a false dichotomy. People often have access to multiple inputs at the same time. Someone using a Windows 10 laptop or a Chromebook Pixel may be able to use the trackpad and touchscreen concurrently.

There are many web pages that detect touch events and then make incorrect assumptions. Some see the touch events and decide to deliver a mobile experience regardless of form factor. Others have different branches of their code for touch and mouse and once you’re in one branch of the code, you cannot switch to the other.

At minimum, we need to ensure that our web pages don’t prevent people from using multiple types of input.

Ideally, we would look for ways to take advantage of multiple inputs used together to create better experiences and enable behavior that otherwise wouldn’t be possible.

Make web pages that are accessible

When someone uses a remote control’s directional pad to interact with a web page on a TV, the browser sends arrow key events behind the scenes. This is a pattern that new forms of input use repeatedly—they build on top of the existing forms of input.

Because of this, one of the best ways to ensure that your web application will be able to support new forms of input is to make sure that it is accessible.

The information provided to help assistive devices navigate web pages is also used by new types of input. In fact, many of the new forms of input had their beginnings as assistive technology. Using Cortana to navigate the web on an Xbox One is not so different than using voice to control Safari on a Mac.

Design for the largest target size by default

A mouse is more precise than our fingers for selecting items on a screen. Buttons and other controls designed for a mouse can be smaller than those designed for touch. That means something designed for a mouse may be unusable by someone using a touchscreen.

However, something designed for touch is not only usable by mouse, but is often easier to select due to Fitts’s Law, which says that “the time to acquire a target is a function of the distance to and size of the target.”

Plus, larger targets are easier for users with lower dexterity, whether that is a permanent condition or a temporary one caused by the environment. At the moment, the largest target size is touch, so this means designing touch first.

As Josh Clark once said, “when any desktop machine could have a touch interface, we have to proceed as if they all do.”

Design for modes of interaction instead of input types

Gmail’s display density settings illustrate the benefit of designing for user interaction instead of input types.

By default, Gmail uses a comfortable display density setting. If someone wants to fit more information on the screen, they can switch to the compact display density setting.

It so happens that these two settings map well to different types of input. The comfortable setting is touch-friendly. And compact is well suited for a mouse.

But Gmail doesn’t confine these options to a particular input. Someone using a touchscreen laptop could choose to use the compact settings. Doing so sacrifices the utility of the laptop’s touchscreen, but the laptop owner gets to make that choice instead of the developer making it for her.

Vimeo made a similar choice with their discontinued feature called Couch Mode. Couch Mode was optimized for the 10ft viewing experience and supported remote controls. But there was nothing that prevented someone from using it on their desktop computer. Or for that matter, using the standard Vimeo experience on their TV.

In both cases, the companies designed for use cases instead of a specific form factor or input. Or worse, designing for a specific input inferred from a form factor.

Abstract baseline input

When we’re working on responsive web designs at Cloud Four, we’ve found that the labels “mobile,” “tablet,” and “desktop” are problematic. Those labels create images in people’s minds that are often not true. Instead, we prefer “narrow,” “wide,” “tall,” and “short” to talk about the screens we’re designing for.

Similarly, words like “click” and “tap” betray assumptions about what type of input someone might use. Using more general terms such as “point” and “select” helps prevent us from inadvertently designing for a particular input.

We should also abstract baseline input in our code. Mouse and touch events are entirely different JavaScript APIs, which makes it difficult to write applications that support both without duplicating a lot of code.

The Pointer Events specification normalizes mouse, touch, and stylus events into a single API. This means for basic input, you only have to write your logic once.

Pointer events map well to existing mouse events. Instead of mousedown, use pointerdown. And if you need to tailor an interaction to a specific type of input, you can check the pointerType() and provide alternate logic—for example, to support gestures for touchscreens.

Pointer Events are a W3C standard and the jQuery team maintains a Pointer Events Polyfill for browsers that don’t yet support the standard.

Progressively enhance input

After baseline input has been wrangled, the fun begins. We need to start exploring what can be done with all the new input types available to us.

Perhaps you can find some innovative uses for the gyroscope like Warby Parker’s product page, which uses the gyroscope to turn the model’s head. And because the feature is built using progressive enhancement, it also works with mouse or touch.

The camera can be used to scan credit cards on iOS or create a photo booth in browsers that support getUserMedia. Normal input forms can be enhanced with the accept attribute to capture images or video via the HTML Media Capture specification:

<input type="file" accept="image/*"> <input type="file" accept="video/*;capture=camcorder"> <input type="file" accept="audio/*;capture=microphone">

Make your forms easier to complete by ensuring they work with autofill. Google has found that users complete forms up to 30 percent faster when using autofill. And keep an eye on the Payment Request API, which will make collecting payment simple for customers.

Or if you really want to push the new boundaries of input, the Web Speech API can be used to enhance form fields in browsers that support it. And Physical Web beacons can be combined with Web Bluetooth to create experiences that are better than native.

Make input part of your test plans

Over the last few years, test plans have evolved to include mobile and tablet devices. But I have yet to see a test plan that includes testing for stylus support.

It makes intuitive sense that people check out faster when using autofill, but none of the ecommerce projects that I’ve worked on have verified that their checkout forms support autofill.

We need to incorporate input in our test plans. If you have a device testing lab, make input one of the criteria you use to determine what new devices to purchase. And if you don’t have a device testing lab, look for an open device testing lab near you and consider contributing to the effort.

The way of the web

Now is the time to experiment with new forms of web input. The key is to build a baseline input experience that works everywhere and then progressively enhance to take advantage of new capabilities of devices if they are available.

With input, as with viewport size, we must be adaptable. It is the way of the web.

Categories: thinktime

The very same software

Seth Godin - Tue 19th Jul 2016 18:07
Something rare is happening, and it might not last long. Today, right now, anyone with a $300 laptop can use the very same tools as the people at the top of just about any industry. If you want to write,...        Seth Godin
Categories: thinktime

Binh Nguyen: Social Engineering/Manipulation, Rigging Elections, and More

Planet Linux Australia - Tue 19th Jul 2016 02:07
We recently had an election locally and I noticed how they were handing out 'How To Vote' cards which made me wonder. How much social engineering and manipulation do we experience each day/throughout our lives (please note, that all of the results are basically from the first few pages of any publicly available search engine)? - think about the education system and the way we're mostly taught to
Categories: thinktime

Objections vs. excuses

Seth Godin - Mon 18th Jul 2016 18:07
Objections are healthy. When someone is being offered a new opportunity or product, it's not unusual for there to be objections. These are issues, the missing feature or unwanted element that's keeping us from saying, "yes." On the other hand,...        Seth Godin
Categories: thinktime

A drop in the bucket

Seth Godin - Sun 17th Jul 2016 19:07
When you buy a glass of wine at a nice restaurant, it doesn't come in a beer stein. If it did, the 4 ounces would be dwarfed by the glass and you'd feel like your host was ungenerous. Closets, it...        Seth Godin
Categories: thinktime

Lev Lafayette: GnuCOBOL: A Gnu Life for an Old Workhorse

Planet Linux Australia - Sat 16th Jul 2016 23:07

COBOL is a business-orientated programming language that has been in use since 1959, making it one of the world's oldest programming languages.

Despite being much criticised (and for good reasons) it is still a major programming language in the financial sector, although there are a declining number of experienced programmers.

read more

Categories: thinktime


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